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When learning computer programming, it is important to have solid resources to depend on in case you have questions or need guidance throughout the process. Resources include interpreters to read your written code, references for the syntax of your chosen language, and rules to go by in order to meet standards and create error-free and easy-to-understand code. It is important to follow these rules so that your code can be duplicated or edited by other programmers, and so that you can return to any code you have written and make corrections with ease.
HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language, which is a standardized system for displaying elements in the requested format. This includes everything from simple fonts and images to hyperlinks, graphic effects, and even interactive media. It has been the core part of websites for decades, although many areas in which it was once used are now being filled by more complex programming languages.
Here are some resources that you can use to learn more about the HTML programming language:
- Austin Community College: HTML basics
- California State University Northridge: HTML tags chart
- Stony Brook University: HTML and web design sample
CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. With CSS, you can determine where and how HTML elements will be displayed relative to each other, as well as what the layout will look like for your website when you are done.
Helpful resources for CSS programming that are worth looking at include:
- University of Wisconsin: Tools for research in library and information studies: HTML and CSS
- DePaul University: DePaul CSS coding guide
- Stanford University: HTML and CSS style guide (Stanford modern)
- The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill: Lecture 10: Ajax and jQuery
PHP originally meant Personal Home Page, but it is now Hypertext Preprocessor. This type of code can be embedded into HTML or used with various web template and content management systems as well as web frameworks.
Helpful PHP resources for anyone interested in learning more about the computer programming language:
- Harding University: Introduction to PHP
- MIT Sloan School of Management: PHP code style guide
- University of Virginia: PHP simple HTML DOM parser manual
Python is a high-level language that is intended for general-purpose programming and scripting purposes. Python focuses on code readability and simplicity. Defining the correct use of whitespace is a part of its standard.
Helpful Python resources including an introduction and tutorials:
- Duke University: https://www2.cs.duke.edu/acm-docs/python/python-3.5.2-docs-html/tutorial/index.html
- University of Kentucky: Introduction to Python development environment
- University of Pittsburg: Python 2.7 tutorial
Ruby is another scripting style language with reflective, dynamic, and object-oriented properties. It varies from other preferred languages yet does not sacrifice ease of writing or reading.
Helpful Ruby resources including a programmer’s guide and an introduction to the programming language:
- Louisiana State University: Programming Ruby: The pragmatic programmer’s guide
- University of California Santa Cruz: Ruby programming language
Perl stands for Practical Extraction and Report Language. It is a programming language that was designed for processing text. Perl is a very popular language for creating CGI scripts, a standard way to conduct communication between a browser and a server.
Helpful Perl resources for anyone looking for tutorials or an introduction to the computer programming language:
- University of California Davis: A quick, painless introduction to the Perl scripting language
- Boston University: Introduction to Perl programming
- Rutgers University: Robert’s Perl tutorial
Several languages have been implemented for use with Microsoft’s .NET framework and their associated development software, Visual Studio. Visual Basic .NET is a flexible object-oriented language that has evolved around the design of Visual Basic.
Helpful .NET resources for learning about the programming language:
- University of Colorado Boulder: .NET framework and C#
- Indiana University South Bend: Visual Basic .NET tutorial
Java is also a general-purpose object-orientated language. It is most notably designed to be a class-based language, focusing on concurrency. Java was designed to have very few or even no dependencies upon implementation and runs within its own virtual machine as opposed to the majority of other programming languages.
Helpful Java resources for learning how to use the programming language:
- Carnegie Mellon School: Teach yourself Java in 21 days
- University of Texas: Java coding samples
- Central Connecticut State University: Introduction to computer science using Java
C is at the very root of many operating systems and was once the most widely used programming language in the world. It is highly supported and is an imperative and structured language with error prevention primary in its philosophy. It is designed with structured programming in mind and allows the use of assembly language within it.
C++ is a hybrid language that is both procedural and object-oriented computer programming language.
Helpful C/C++ resources for anyone interested in learning more about the programming languages:
- Drexel University: C language tutorial
- Colby College: Tutorial: C program
- Bowdoin College: C warm-up
- Washington University in St. Louis: C++ programming language tutorials
- Georgia Institute of Technology: C++ programming tutorial: Part 2, object oriented programming
- Wayne State University: C++ programming how-to
C# is a hybrid of C and C++. It is a widely supported imperative language with many resources available. An object-orientated language, it is designed for use with XML-based web services on the .NET platform and is intended to improve development productivity for web applications.
Helpful C# resources worth checking out:
- Clarkson University: C sharp programming
- Kennesaw State University: Fundamentals of computer programming with C#
- Pennsylvania State University: C# design patterns: A tutorial
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